Posted : 1/16/2008 8:00:55 PM
1. Every time someone flushes a toilet in the apartment building, the shower becomes very hot and causes the person to jump back. Over time, the person begins to jump back automatically after hearing the flush, before the water temperature changes.
+P the first time. The scalding water was punishing when first linked to the sound of flushing. Eventually, the flush is a conditioned punisher and you move out of the water stream to avoid further punishment. At some point, you don't consciously think about it, you just move when hearing a flush. This would be what has been referred to as classical conditioning, ala Pavlov's dog.
2. Your father gives you a credit card at the end of your first year in college because you did so well. As a result, your grades continue to get better in your second year.
What was the original motivation to do well, sans credit card? The introduction of the card is to motivate the behavior of doing better to repeat. So, +R.
3. Your car has a red, flashing light that blinks annoyingly if you start the car without buckling the seat belt. You become less likely to start the car without buckling the seat belt.
-R, buckling the belt to stop the blinking light.
4. A lion in a circus learns to stand up on a chair and jump through a hoop to receive a food treat.
+R, the behavior is repeated because it is rewarding.
5. A professor has a policy of exempting students from the final exam if they maintain perfect attendance during the quarter. His students' attendance increases dramatically.
I was going to say +R but I think it might -R. Not skipping class results in ease of pressure by not having to take a final exam. The reward for attendance is not having to do something?
6. You check the coin return slot on a pay telephone and find a quarter. You find yourself checking other telephones over the next few days.
7. Your hands are cold so you put your gloves on. In the future, you are more likely to put gloves on when it's cold.
-R, avoiding the cold.
8. John Watson conducted an experiment with a boy named Albert in which he paired a white rat with a loud, startling noise. Albert now becomes startled at the sight of the white rat.
Classical, with the white rat being a conditioned punisher. Future experiences are +P.
9. You eat a new food and then get sick because of the flu. However, you develop a dislike for the food and feel nauseated whenever you smell it.
This happened to me. Twice I had eaten at a fast food chain restaraunt and twice I had gotten sick, thinking it was food poisoning but it might have been something else. It was a decade before I ate there again. Classical with a conditioned +P.
10. An individual receives frequent injections of drugs, which are administered in a small examination room at a clinic. The drug itself causes increased heart rate but after several trips to the clinic, simply being in a small room causes an increased heart rate.
There are many small rooms in ones life, such as a bathroom. I would more likely develope an aversion to clinics, like some people who develop an aversion to dentists' offices. OTOH, my friend Lee, who was a Navy SEAL, spent quite a bit of time planting charges in Viet Cong tunnels. He developed some claustraphobia after that. No doubt, increased heartrate and stress. He did not like attic or crawlspace work. Classical with a conditioned punisher.